Wild damask – also known as layer or laminate Damascus. It is created by simply duplicating layers without specifically influencing the pattern. Only the hammer blows cause a certain deformation of the layers. By sharpening the blade, the layers are cut through towards the cutting edge and form the simple pattern as quoted by the manufactures of best Damascus steel knife by Ritzy Knives.
Ladder damask – it is created by cutting through the layers, for example with an angle grinder, before it is forged to the actual blade thickness.
Cross damask – an averted form of ladder damask. In principle, any pattern can be created by cutting through the layers. Even feather patterns can be created. (Picture below)
In general, I would personally lump all the patterns made by grinding out layers into one pot and refer to them as “grinding damask” . But it’s just my personal name for it.
Otherwise you would have to give every pattern on which the cut was a little different a name of its own. There are no limits to your imagination when grinding out layers. I have even ground out my initials in one of my blades, which were later visible in the damask.
The rose damask – it is made by drilling blind holes in the package. This also cuts the layers and then forges them out. The so-called rose is the result of flat forging. Each blind hole is a rose.
Torsion damask – this type of damask is created when the package is twisted (twisted) with the desired number of layers. Then the twisted rod is then forged again flat and in the shape of a blade.
The pattern varies depending on how much material is removed when the blade is sharpened. The closer you get when grinding the axis of rotation, the more “stars” appear, as can be seen in the picture of the 3-lane torsion damask below.
Here is a small pattern for a twisted damask rod.
Reversible torsion damask – also known as “women’s hair damask “ .
This type of damask is made by twisting the package alternately. The beautiful snake-like pattern comes out well after sanding and etching.
3-lane torsion damask (also belongs to the so-called multi-bar damask) – this beautiful damask is made by welding three twisted damask bars . The effort is therefore significantly higher than with the normal torsion damask described above. At that time swords were also made with this technique, since a complete sword length or strength could not be made from a single package. The material required for a sword is too much for a single damask package and therefore a sword was made from several individual packages.
Unfolded explosion damask – the manufacturing process of this damask pattern is very complex. At the beginning, a damask package is made up of a certain number of layers. When the layers are reached, the package is folded a few more times so that the layers in the package lie diagonally. The diagonal folding results in a zigzag arrangement of the layers. When the package has been welded diagonally enough times, it is notched on the side with the angle grinder and pulled apart like an accordion. Subsequent forging flat then results in the pattern shown. The pattern shown below is also an unfolded explosion damask, but it has significantly more layers.
Here the finer variant of the “unfolded explosion damask” described above
Here is another example of the same type of damask with deep etching and different layer distortion.
Examples of the arrangement of layers in an unfolded explosion damask package before unfolding.
Real explosion damask – it is created through a very complex process in which the layers are repeatedly welded together on edge. Then the entire package is forged perpendicular to the blade shape. The probability of errors with this type of damask is very high, as extreme distortions arise in the layers.